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大一英语篇一:2017级大一英语上学期期末考试试卷(附答案)

大一英语_2017级大一英语上学期期末考试试卷(附答案)


  Part II Reading Comprehension (30 %)
  Directions: There are four passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
  Passage One
  Science is not a set of unquestionable results but a way of understanding the world around us. Its real work is slow. The scientific method , as many of us learned in school, is a gradual process that begins with a purpose or problem or question to be answered. It includes a list of materials, a procedure to follow, a set of observations to make and, finally, conclusions to reach. In medicine, when a new drug is proposed that might cure or control a disease, it is first tested on a large random group of people, and their reactions are then compared with those of another random group not given the drug. All reactions in both groups are carefully recorded and compared, and the drug is evaluated. All of this takes time and patience.
  It’s the result of course, that makes the best news—not the years of quiet work that characterize the bulk of scientific inquiry. After an experiment is concluded or an observation is made, the result continues to be examined critically. When it is submitted for publication, it goes to a group of the scientist’s colleagues, who review the work. Einstein was right when he said: “No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right, a single experiment can at any time prove me wrong.”
  In August 1996, NASA announced the discovery in Antarctica of a meteorite(流星) from Mars that might contain evidence of ancient life on another world. As President Clinton said that day, the possibility that life existed on Mars billions of years ago was potentially one of the great discoveries of our time.
  After the excitement wore down and initial papers were published, other researchers began looking at samples from the same meteorite. Some concluded that the “evidence of life” was mostly contamination from Antarctic ice or that there was nothing organic at all in the rock.
  Was this a failure of science, as some news reports trumpeted?
  No! It was a good example of the scientific method working the way it is supposed to. Scientists spend years on research, announce their findings, and these findings are examined by other scientists. That’s how we learn. Like climbing a mountain, we struggle up three feet and fall back two. It’s a process filled with disappointments and reverses, but somehow we keep moving ahead.
  21. The author’s main purpose in writing this passage is to state that ____________.
  A) most scientific discoveries are not reliable
  B) mass media is misleading because it looks at the research results only
  C) scientific research is a process filled with reverses and requires slow and patient
  work
  D) repeated experiments are necessary before medicine can be used in patients
  22. Publication of a scientific finding signifies __________.
  A) a challenge to fellow scientists to prove it wrong
  B) the end of a process
  C) the beginning of a new scientific inquiry
  D) the soundness of the result
  23. Einstein’s words are used to show that he thought___________.
  A) experiments have proved him right
  B) scientists do not need so many experiments
  C) one experiment is not enough to prove him wrong.
  D) scientific ideas are never free from challenge
  24. NASA’s announcement of the discovery of evidence of ancient life on Mars shows _________.
  A) the way human beings learn about nature
  B) the failure of the scientific method
  C) the fruitlessness of human search for life on another world
  D) the excitement brought by scientific findings
  25. It can be inferred from the passage that the media is interested in __________.
  A) the process of scientific research
  B) the results of scientific research
  C) the scientists who do the research
  D) the effects of scientific research on human life
  Passage Two
  Normally a student must attend a certain number of courses in order to graduate, and each course which he attends gives him a credit which he may count towards a degree. In many American universities the total work for a degree consists of thirty-six courses each lasting for one semester. A typical course consists of three classes per week for fifteen weeks; while attending a university a student will probably attend four or five courses during each semester. Normally a student would expect to take four years attending two semesters each year. It is possible to spread the period of work for the degree over a longer period. It is also possible for a student to move between one university and another during his degree course, though this is not in fact done as a regular practice.
  For every course that he follows a student is given a grade, which is recorded, and the record is available for the student to show to prospective employers. All this imposes a constant pressure and strain of work, but in spite of this some students still find time for great activity in student affairs. Elections to positions in student organizations arouse much enthusiasm. The effective work of maintaining discipline is usually performed by students who advise the academic authorities. Any student who is thought to have broken the rules, for example, by cheating has to appear before a student court. With the enormous numbers of students, the operation of the system does involve a certain amount of activity. A student who has held one of these positions of authority is much respected and it will be of benefit to him later in his career.
  26. Normally a student would at least attend __________classes each week.
  A) 36
  B) 12
  C) 20
  D) 15
  27. According to the first paragraph an American student is allowed _______.
  A) to live in a different university
  B) to take a particular course in a different university
  C) to live at home and drive to classes
  D) to get two degrees from two different universities
  28. American university students are usually under pressure of work because_________.
  A) their academic performance will affect their future careers
  B) they are heavily involved in student affairs
  C) they have to observe university discipline
  D) they want to run for positions of authority
  29.Some students are enthusiastic for positions in student organizations probably because_________.
  A) they hate the constant pressure and strain of their study
  B) they will then be able to stay longer in the university
  C) such positions help them get better jobs
  D) such positions are usually well paid
  30. The student organizations seem to be effective in _________.
  A) dealing with the academic affairs of the university
  B) ensuring that the students observe university regulations
  C) evaluating students’ performance by bringing them before a court
  D) keeping up the students’ enthusiasm for social activities
  Passage Three
  Doreen Sykora is now a junior at Mcgill University. She had a difficult time when she first began college. She said, “I was always well prepared for my examinations. But I would go in to class to take the exam, and I would fall apart. I could not answer the questions correctly-----even though I knew the answers! I would just blank out because of nervousness and fear.” Hitoshi Sakamoto, an anthropology student at Temple University in Tokyo reports similar experiences.
  These two young students were experiencing something called test anxiety. Because a student worries and is stressed about a test, his or her mind does not work as well as it usually does. The student cannot write or think clearly because of the severe tension and nervousness.
  Now there are special university courses to help students. In these courses, advisors and psychologists try to help students by teaching them to manage test anxiety. Such a course helps students learn to live with stress and not fail because of it. First students take a practice test to measure their worry level. If the tests show that their stress level is high, the students can take a short course to manage the fear. These courses teach students how to relax their bodies. They get training to become calm in very tense situations. By controlling their nervousness, they can let their minds work more easily. Learned information then comes out without difficulty on a test.
  Doreen Sykora saw immediate results after taking such a course. She now has enthusiasm about the relaxation methods. “Mostly, what I do is imagine myself in a very calm place. Then I imagine myself picking up a pencil. I move slowly and carefully. I breathe easily and let all the tension out. With each breath, more worry leaves me. It really works too. My grades have improved greatly! I’m really doing well at McGill now. This relaxation method works not only on examinations, but it has improved the rest of my life as well.”
  For Hitoshi in Tokyo, the results were much the same. He is enjoying school a lot more and learning more.
  31. Doreen Sykora and Hitoshi Sakamoto were filled with nervousness and fear during examinations because they were__________.
  A) not ready and unaware of the answers
  B) physically so weak that they fell apart
  C) subject to test anxiety
  D) unable to write or think clearly
  32. The higher the students’ worry level is, __________.
  A) the less calm and relaxing they are
  B) the more difficult they will be trained to manage fear
  C) the more stressed and tense they are
  D) the longer courses they will take to manage fear
  33. What’s the purpose of some special university student-help courses?
  A) To help students to reduce test anxiety.
  B) To show a stress level experienced by students.
  C) To learn more knowledge about test anxiety.
  D) To have a better understanding of test anxiety.
  34. What’s the meaning of “blank out” in paragraph one?
  A) To be like a blanket.
  B) To be sure of an answer.
  C) To be relaxed.
  D) To be unable to think clearly.
  35.Which of the following best sums up the organization of the passage?
  A) Examples----theories----ideas.
  B) Problem----strategy----examples----results.
  C) General statement----examples----result.
  D) Strategy----experiment----examples.
  Part III Vocabulary and Structure (15 %)
  Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
  36. The president made a _______ speech at the opening ceremony of the sports meeting, which encouraged the sportsmen greatly.
  A) vigorous
  B) tedious
  C) flat
  D) harsh
  37. It is not easy to learn English well but if you _______, you will succeed in the end.
  A) hang up
  B) hang about
  C) hang on
  D) hang onto
  38. Remember that customers don’t _______ about prices in that city.
  A) debate
  B) bargain
  C) dispute
  D) consult
  39. The newcomers found it impossible to _______ themselves to the climate sufficiently to make permanent homes in the new country.
  A) suit
  B) adapt
  C) regulate
  D) coordinate
  40. A _______ to this problem is expected to be found before long.
  A) result
  B) function
  C) settlement
  D) solution
  41. You have nothing to _______ by refusing to listen to our advice.
  A) gain
  B) grasp
  C) seize
  D) earn
  42. One day I _______ a newspaper article about the retirement of an English professor at a nearby state college.
  A) came across
  B) came about
  C) came after
  D) came at
  43. A peculiarly pointed chin is his memorable facial _______.
  A) mark
  B) feature
  C) trace
  D) appearance
  44. I hope that you’ll be more careful in typing the letter. Don’t _______ anything.
  A) omit
  B) leak
  C) lack
  D) withdraw
  45. Our new house is very _______ for me as I can get to the office in five minutes.
  A) adaptable
  B) convenient
  C) available
  D) comfortable
 
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大一英语篇二:2017大一英语期末试题带答案

大一英语_2017大一英语期末试题带答案


  I. Spelling: (10%)
  Directions: Listen to the following words and write them down. Each of them will be read twice.
  II.Dictation: (10%)
  Directions: You will hear a passage read three times. At the first reading, you should listen carefully for its general idea. At the second reading, you are required to write down the exact words you have just heard (with proper punctuation). At the third reading, you should check carefully what you have written down.
  III.Word Derivation: (5%)
  Directions: Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate form of the word given in the bracket.
  1.Do grades determine __________ (eligible) for graduate school or special programs?
  2.The result of the bilateral talks of the countries is ________ with our expectation. (correspond)
  3.There does, however, appear to be very little evidence to directly support such theories which thus remain largely __________. (speculate)
  4.Your misunderstandings derive from a completely ______ idea of the nature of charity. (err)
  5.The book is essentially a(n) ______ to religious tolerance. (exhort)
  IV. Phrasal Verbs: (5%)
  Directions: Fill in the blank in each sentence with a phrasal verb in its proper form. The base verb is given in the bracket.
  1. There was a notice saying “__________ the grass”. (keep)
  2. Shrewd as she was, she was __________ by him and lost everything. (take)
  3. It should be fully aware that the situation __________ immediate actions. (call)
  4. We must __________ our responsibilities and not try to get out of them. (face)
  5. The soaring real estate home price upsets me so much. It will at least take me ten years to __________ for a three-bedroom flat. (save)
  V. Multiple Choice: (20%)
  Directions: Choose one alternative which best completes each sentence or answers each question.
  1.It was difficult to return to __________ life after ten years in the military.
  A. civic B. civility C. civilian D. civilized
  2. No one __________ would have anything to do with him.
  A. whatever B. whoever C. whichever D. however
  3. I can __________ to the absolute truth of his statement.
  A. protest B. attest C. detest D. contest
  4. Her work __________, she sat down for a cup of tea.
  A. being done B. doing C. having done D. done
  5. After _________ appeared to be an endless waiting, it was her turn to be examined.
  A. that B. it C. which D. what
  6. The accident him of his sight and the use of his legs.
  A. excluded B. disabled C. deprived D. gripped
  7. On January 1st many people make a New Year .
  A. intention B. determination C. dedication D. resolution
  8. My old grandma cannot stand this summer’s heat.
  A. intensive B. intense C. tense D. dense
  9. Mr. Johnson tends to view most issues from a religious .
  A. sense B. aspect C. perspective D. notion
  10. The are in your favor because you have more experience.
  A. odds B. scales C. rates D. ratios
  11. What these young men were doing a threat to the safety of the whole neighborhood.
  A. constructed B. constituted C. contracted D. contributed
  12. The medicine the doctor gave me my headache.
  A. restricted B. removed C. released D. relieved
  13. We would never have secured our independence without the aid you .
  A. rendered B. requested C. presented D. pursued
  14. The famous writer draws his childhood memories for the material of most of his stories.
  A. of B. in C. on D. up
  15. The Beatles, the most famous British band of the 1960s, traveled worldwide for many years, __________ cultural barriers.
  A. transporting B. transferring C. transplanting D. transcending
  16. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to The Diary of the Unknown Soldier (Unit 9)?
  A. The cruelty in the war was out of the soldier’s expectation.
  B. The soldier willingly joined the war because he was a man of courage and was not afraid of death.
  C. What encouraged the soldier to live on was his wish to go home alive to see his family.
  D. The soldier was not only disgusted with the war, but also doubtful of the sensibility of the war.
  17. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the professor in Letter to a B Student (Unit 11)?
  A. There are more B students now than there used to be a few decades ago.
  B. Grades may not be the truthful indication of the students’ knowledge.
  C. Since grades are basically irrelevant and misleading, they should be eliminated in schools.
  D. Getting a B in class does not mean one will necessarily make less achievement in life.
  18. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to Focus on Global Warming (Unit 13)?
  A. Due to the Internet, people are increasingly concerned with global warming.
  B. In the process of global warming, the temperature would rise at the same rate worldwide.
  C. The change of climate would bring disastrous consequences to humans, such as severe flooding, more cases of heart diseases, respiratory problems and so on.
  D. To combat global warming, we just need to take measures to reduce our vulnerability to it.
  19. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to Should a Public Worker Accept Costly Gifts? (Unit 15)
  A. Out of his love for the community, the author accepted the condition that within a year he should be ready to go back to South Africa if the community needed him.
  B. The author believed that his service to the community should not be connected with any monetary purpose.
  C. The wife insisted that they should keep these gifts for the sake of their sons in the future marriages.
  D. To persuade his wife to return these gifts, the author promised to buy some ornaments for their children.
  20. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to Open the Door to Forgiveness (Unit 16)?
  A. Hate is like an uncontrollable disease that darkens our life and affects our health.
  B. To deny one’s hate for someone contributes to the forgiveness of other’s misconducts.
  C. Forgiveness can break the grip that past wrong and pain have on our mind.
  D. Once we truly forgive someone, we will eventually forget the hurt.
  VI. Cloze: (10%)
  Directions: Fill in each of the blanks with ONE appropriate word.
  Time spent in a bookstore can be enjoyable, ___1___ you are a book-lover or merely there to buy a book as a present. You may even have entered the shop just to find ___2___ away from a sudden shower. ___3___ the reasons, you can soon become totally unaware of your surroundings. The ___4___ to pick up a book with an attractive dust-jacket is irresistible, although this method of selection ought not to be ___5___, as you might end up ___6___ a rather boring book. You soon become engrossed in some book or ___7___, and usually it is only much ___8___ that you realize you have spent ___9___ much time there and must dash off to keep some forgotten appointment---without buying a ___10___, of course.
  VII.Reading Comprehension: (10%)
  Directions: In this part there is a short passage with five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in no more than TEN words.
  According to a recent survey, employees in many companies today work longer hours than employees did in 1997. They also take shorter vacations than employees in 1997 took. It seems that Americans are working harder today than ever before. Or are they? A management consultant, Bill Meyer, decided to find out. For three days, he observed an investment banker hard at work. Meyer wrote down everything that banker did during his long workday----the banker worked 80 hours a week. At the end of the three-day period, Meyer reviewed the banker’s activities with him. They discovered that the man spent 80 percent of his time doing busy work. For example, he attended unnecessary meetings, made repeated telephone calls, and spent time packing and unpacking his two big briefcases.
  Apparently, many people believe that the more time a person spends at work, the more she or he accomplished. However, the connection between time and productivity is not always positive. In fact, many studies indicate that after a certain point, anyone’s productivity and creativity begin to decrease. Furthermore, it is not always easy for individuals to realize that their performance is falling off.
  Part of the problem is understandable. When employers evaluate employees, they often consider the amount of time on the job in addition to job performance. Employees know this. Consequently, they work longer hours and take less vacation time than they did nine years ago. Although many working people can do their job effectively during a regular 40-hour work week, they feel they have to spend more time on the job after normal working hours so that the people who can promote them see them.
  A group of headhunters (people who search out executive personnel for companies) were asked their opinion about a situation. They had a choice of two candidates for an executive position with an important company. The candidates had comparable qualifications for the job. For example, they were both reliable. One could do the job well in a 40-hour work week. The other could do the same job in an 80-hour week just as well. According to a headhunting expert, the 80-hour-week candidate would get the job. The time this candidate spends on the job may encourage their employees to spend more time at work, too. Employers believe that if the employees stay at work later, they may actually do more work.
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大一英语篇三:大学英语四级原文及翻译

  翻译是英语四级考试的必考题目之一,你知道怎样应对英语四级翻译吗?下面是小编为大家带来的大学英语四级原文及翻译,欢迎阅读。
  英语四级翻译技巧:词义选择
  所谓词义选择,是指词本来就有这个意思,问题是我们要将其在特定场合的正确意思选出来。正确选词是保证译文质量的重要环节,如果能做到在词语意义和字面形式上都对等当然最好,如果不能兼顾,则取意义,舍形式。越是普通的词,越是拥有繁多的释义和搭配,翻译过程中的词义也就越难以确定。选词时,要注意词的广狭、所处的语境、词的褒贬和感情色彩。例如:
  例1.【试题原句】到2012年10月,审批才又谨慎地恢复。(2014年6月四级真题)
  【思路分析】SVO=审批+恢复(本句为无主句,翻译时可考虑使用被动语态,其中,“到2012年10月”为时间状语)
  【参考译文】The examination and approval procedure wasn’t prudently restored until October, 2012.
  【技巧探秘】虽然“recover”和“restore”均有“恢复”的意思,但“restore”侧重于表示“恢复(某种情况);恢复秩序”,根据语境,用于本句翻译最合适。(词义的选择)
  例2.【试题原句】中国还启动了雄心勃勃的太空探索计划,其中包括到2020年建成一个太空站。(2015年四级真题)
  【思路分析】SVO=中国+启动+太空探索计划(“其中包括……”补充说明了“太空探索计划的内容)。
  【参考译文】In addition, China has also launched an ambitious space exploration program, which includes building a space station by 2020.
  【技巧探秘】“雄心勃勃的”可以作为褒义词或贬义词使用,但是可以明显看出,其在该句中被当作褒义词使用;在翻译时,也需要注意选择对应的具有褒义用法的英文词汇,故此译为“ambitious”。(词义的褒贬)
  英语四级翻译技巧:转换词性
  词性转换是一种常用的翻译技巧,是指在必要的时候,将原文中的某个词的词性在译文里用其他词性表达出来。这种转换会使译文更加灵活变通,不必拘泥于原文形式,却能更准确传达出原文内涵。它可能涉及动词、名词、形容词和副词之间的相互转换。下面我们以具体的考题为例:
  例1.【试题原句】中国的互联网社区是全世界发展最快的。(2014年12月四级真题)
  【思路分析】本句的主语是“中国的互联网社区”,互联网社区可直译为“internet community”,翻译时可将“中国”作定语,译为“Chinese”或者“of China”,也可将其作为地点状语,理解为“在中国”,译为“in China”。“全世界”作为地点状语,翻译时置于句末。
  【参考译文】The Internet community of China develops fastest all over the world.
  【技巧探秘】本句可以按照原句的顺序直接译为“China’s Internet Community is the fastest-growing one in the world.”,虽然这种方法也能够明确地表达出汉语原句的意思,但在表达的新颖性上还是有所欠缺。仔细分析发现,在翻译该句时,还可使用转化法,例如将该句中“发展”这一动词译为名词“growth/development”,用形容词最高级fastest修饰即可。这种译法更能凸显译文的准确性,也更加地道。
  例2.【试题原句】大熊猫(giant panda)是一种温顺的动物,长着独特的黑白皮毛。(2014年12月四级真题)
  【思路分析】SVO=大熊猫+是+动物(其中,“温顺的”为定语,修饰“动物”,“长着……”补充说明了大熊猫的个体特征)。
  【参考译文】Giant panda is a kind of tame animal with unique black and white fur.
  【技巧探秘】分析发现,如果将该句调整为“大熊猫是一种长着独特的黑白皮毛的温顺的动物”,意思并未发生变化,但可清晰知道,主干句为“大熊猫是一种动物”,而“长着独特的黑白皮毛的温顺的”作“动物”的定语。句中出现了“是”和“长着”两个动词,可将“是”作系动词,将“长着……”转化为with介词结构,译为with black and white fur。在这种情况下,with复合结构的使用,将两个分句合二为一,在体现大熊猫的特点的同时,也使句子简单明了。
  温馨提示: 汉语动词的使用频率远远高于英语。这是因为按照英语句法,受主谓关系的限制,一个简单句或分句大多只有一个谓语动词。而且,英语还可以通过谓语动词以外各种词性的词来体现动词意义。因此将汉语句子里的动词转换为英语里其他词性的词是翻译中的常用技巧之一。当然,考生在掌握汉语动词转换技巧的同时,还应灵活掌握其他汉语用词的转换技巧,从而对自己的译文起到锦上添花的作用。
  例3.【试题原句】通过阅读,人们能更好地学会感恩、有责任心和与人合作,而教育的目的正是要培养这些基本素质。(2014年6月四级真题)
  【思路分析】本句有两个分句,第一个分句的SVO为“人们+能学会+感恩、有责任心和与人合作”,其中“通过阅读”为方式状语,可直译为“Through reading”;第二个分句的SVO为“目的+是+培养基本素质”,其中,“教育的”和“这些”为定语,分别修饰“目的”和“基本素质”。由于出现了“而”连接两个分句,在具体翻译时,可将整句处理为and连接的并列分句。
  【参考译文】Through reading, people can learn better how to be grateful, responsible and cooperative, and the goal of education is to cultivate these basic personalities.
  【技巧探秘】本句的译文将汉语原句中的三个并列动词短语 “感恩、有责任心和与人合作”转换成了形容词“grateful, responsible and cooperative”,从而使整个译文更加自然流畅。
  英语四级翻译技巧:适当增词
  英汉两种语言有着不同的思维方式、语言习惯和表达方式,汉译英时如果完全将中文逐词翻译,则会造成译文不符合英语语法的要求,表达不地道或者晦涩难懂。英汉两种语言在名词、代词、连词、介词和冠词的使用方法上也存在很大差别。英语中代词使用频率较高,凡说到人的器官和归某人所有的或与某人有关的事物时,必须在前面加上物主代词。因此,在汉译英时需要增补物主代词或增添一些词、短句或句子,甚至是动词等,以便更准确地表达出原文所包含的意义。
  此外,在使用增译法时,需要注意以下原则:符合上下文的需要;符合英语的语言习惯和英美等国的文化习俗;符合英美人的思维方式。具体请看下面的例子:
  例1.【试题原句】中国给数百万在线零售商以极具竞争力的价格销售商品的机会。(2015年6月四级真题)
  【思路分析】SVO=中国+给(在线零售商)+机会;“以极具竞争力的价格”为方式状语,可译为“at a highly competitive price”,“销售商品的”为定语,修饰“机会”。
  【参考译文】China provides millions of online retailers with an opportunity to sell their goods at a very competitive price.
  【技巧探秘】本句的主干部分为“中国给……零售商……机会”,为了便于理解,可以进一步将原句理解为“中国给数百万在线零售商(提供了)以极具竞争力的价格销售商品的机会”,这种情况下,主干为“中国给……零售商(提供)……机会”,此时就可以考虑使用“provide sb with sth…”的结构译出。此外,该句还根据语义将“销售商品”补充为“销售(他们的)商品”,译为“their products”,再次强调“商品”的所有者为前面提到的“在线零售商”。
  例2.【试题原句】随着旅行多了,年轻人在大城市和著名景点花的时间少了,他们反而更为偏远的地方所吸引,有些人甚至选择长途背包旅行。(2014年12月四级真题)
  【思路分析】“随着旅行多了”作伴随状语,将其译作“with more travel”,置于句首。因其余分句的内容均独立完整,故可将其分译成三句。“年轻人……的时间少了,他们反而更为……所吸引”,两句间表对比,可用instead连接。另外,也可以将这两句简化为“年轻人更加喜欢偏远的地方,而不是大城市和著名景点”,将其处理为“…do …, rather than …更喜欢……而不是……”。处理最后一个分句时,注意“甚至”表示递进,可将其译作“furthermore”,或者“even”均可。若将主语“有些人”逐字译作“some people”,则稍显笼统,可依上文,具体译作“some young tourists”。
  【参考译文】With more travel experience, youngsters tend to spend more time in remote areas,rather than big cities and famous resorts. Furthermore, some young tourists would choose backpacking.
  【技巧探秘】参考译文对伴随状语增译了“experience经验”,使“伴随旅行带来的意义”更加具体完整。
  英语四级翻译技巧:合理省词
  中文句子有时会由于强调、修辞等需要,会重复出现某些词语,或者用意义相近的形容词叠加使用。相比之下,英语行文强调简洁、层次分明,语言上追求自然流畅。因此,在强调简洁,在将汉语翻译成英文时,需要充分理解中文的表述是否重复,并根据上下文语境及英语表达习惯,删去不符合汉语思维习惯、语言习惯和表达方式的词,以确保译文简洁流畅。请看下面的例子:
  例1.【试题原句】随着技术和安全措施的改进,发生核事故的可能性完全可以降低到最低限度。(2014年6 月四级真题)
  【思路分析】SVO=可能性+降低到+最低限度,其中将“发生核事故的”作定语,修饰主语“可能性”,而将“完全”处理成状语即可。另外,将“随着……”作为伴随状语,置于主干句之前译出。
  【参考译文】With the improvement of technology and safety measures, the possibility of nuclear accidents can be definitely minimized.
  【技巧探秘】在本句中,因为“发生核事故的可能性”完全可以理解为“核事故的可能性 ,而且汉语多用动词,英语多用名词和介词,所以可将“发生”省译,译为“名词+of短语”的形式,可译作“the possibility of nuclear accidents”。
  例2.【试题原句】一些为接受更好教育而转往城市上学的学生如今又回到了本地农村学校就读。(2014年6 月四级真题)
  【思路分析】SVO=学生+回到+学校;“一些为接受更好教育而转往城市上学的”为定语,修饰学生,由于该定语较长,翻译时,可考虑将其处理为定语从句的形式(具体见下文“定语的翻译”部分)。
  【参考译文】Those students who have previously transferred to city schools for better education are now moving back to their local rural schools.
  【技巧探秘】本句的译文省略了原文中的动词“接受”、“上学”和“就读”,但仍然完整地表达了原文的意思,突显了英语行文简洁的特点。
  省略词语决不意味着可以随意删节原文的词句,而必须同样遵守一些原则:在译文中看来是可有可无的,或是多余的;其意思已经包含在上下文里;其含义在译文中是不言而喻的。
  汉译英中所省略的词语分以下几类:省略重复出现的某词;原文中表示范畴的词语(汉语里有一些名词,如“任务”、“工作”、“情况”、“状态”、“问题”、“制度”、“事业”、“局面”等等用来表明范畴时,一般可以省略不翻译。例如,原句:人民内部矛盾问题,译文:contradictions among the people,此处省略了“问题(problems)的翻译)。省略可能影响译文修辞效果的词语(加以简化和压缩:翻译主要的和不可缺少的词语,略去次要的或不言而喻的词语;将具体词语抽象概括为笼统的概念词)。
  英语四级翻译技巧:拆译合译
  汉译英时,需要拆译的句子多数是长句,或者是结构复杂的复句。这种句子如果译成一个长句,就会使译文冗长、累赘、意思表达不清楚,也不符合英文习惯。这种情况下就可以将其拆译,以使译文既层次分明、清晰易懂,又忠于原文。一般来说,可以从主语转变处拆分,从关联词(如转折处)拆分,从意义完整、独立处拆分,从原文总说分述处拆分等。当然,在具体翻译过程中,还可选用适当的连词,介词短语或插入语,以确保译文的紧密衔接。请看下面的例子:
  例1.【试题原句】阅读对于中小学生尤为重要,假如他们没有在这个关键时期培养阅读的兴趣,以后要培养成阅读的习惯就很难了。(2014年12月四级真题)
  【思路分析】本句由两个分句组成,前一个分句的主干为“阅读对于……尤为重要……”,第二个分句中的“假如”表示一种条件或假设的情况。具体翻译时,“培养……的兴趣”可以处理为“cultivate/develop an interest of…”,“养成……的习惯”可以处理为“develop/acquire/form a habit of…”。
  【参考译文】Reading is especially important for middle and primary school students. Suppose they don’t nurture the interest of reading at that critical period, it will be harder to develop a habit to read books.(从意义完整、独立处拆分)
  【技巧探秘】由于句子较长,可考虑分译法,拆成两句。因为“假设”表明这是另一个话题,所以可从此处断开。具体翻译时,因为句中出现了假设词“假如”,可将后半部分处理为if或suppose引导的从句。补充:此外,“假如……,……很难了”,与“阅读对于中小学生尤为重要”构成隐含的因果关系,而该句重点强调的是前半部分,所以可将前半部分作为主句,而将后半部分作为原因状语从句译出(译为:Reading is especially important for primary and secondary school students because once the interest of reading is not fostered at that critical time, it will be more difficult for them to cultivate later.)。
  例2.【试题原句】中国南方大多种植水稻,人们通常以大米为主食;而华北大部分地区由于过于寒冷或过于干燥,无法种植水稻,那里的主要作物是小麦。(2015年6月四级真题)
  【思路分析】本句表明了两层含义,使用分号隔开。分号前的句子含有两个分句,分号后的句子则含有三个分句。“那里的主要作物是小麦”属于典型的主系表结构,其中“那里”指代“华北大部分地区”,翻译时,可使用副词there代替。
  【参考译文】In southern China, people always grow rice and usually take rice as the staple food. However, in most of northern China, people cannot grow rice because of the exceedingly cold and dry weather, and the main crop there is wheat.(从关联词或转折处拆分)
  【技巧探秘】由于汉语原句中有分号,参考译文将原句拆分为两个单独的句子分别译出,并使用转折连词However来实现两个句子之间的衔接,从而直观地体现了南北方的种植和饮食差异。
  英语四级翻译技巧:直译&意译
  翻译的基本方法是直译(literal translation)与意译(liberal translation),所谓直译是指在翻译时尽量保持原文的语言形式,包括措词造句、语句结构、修辞手段等,同时也要求语言表达通顺。这种译法是建立在汉英两种语言表达方式的共性上的。直译通常有两种情况:译文完全按照原文的形式,语句顺序、语法结构不作任何调整;译文不完全按照原文的结构形式,根据需要对原文的词序或语序作些必要的调整。意译是翻译中的另外一种常用的方法。它是指在翻译时,译文着重表达原文的思想,而不注重与原文词义、形式结构的对应。
  对于大学英语四级的翻译来说,要求考生要把直译与意译联系起来,两种译法可以并用,相互补充。无论是直译还是意译,考生都要明白英汉结构的差异,英语表达常按句内主次从属并列关系排列,句子之间的修饰词及限定语较多;汉语短句多,动词多,并且汉语喜欢重复。那么在翻译的时候要注意英汉之间的转化。为了直观和整体地介绍这两种翻译方法,我们特意给出了如下示例:
  例.【试题原句】 自1961年该基金会成立以来,大熊猫就一直是它的徽标。(2014年12月四级真题)
  【思路分析】SVO=大熊猫+是(它的)徽标,可依“主系表”结构译出;一看到“自从”就应该想到since,since作为介词,后面要跟名词结构,所以“自从……以来”可译作介词短语“since the founding of WWF in 1961”或处理为从句“since 1961 when WWF was founded”,置于句首或句末均可。
  【参考译文 1】Since the fund was established in 1961, the giant panda has been its logo.
  【参考译文 2】The fund has been using the giant panda as its logo since its establishment in 1961.
  【技巧探秘】参考译文1 是典型的直译,既保持原文内容,也保持了原文形式。参考译文2采取了意译的方法,虽然形式上与原文不同,但内容却一致。一般情况下,可以将一些本身意思就很简单明确的句子直译出来。而对于直译不能表达原文意思的句子则需要意译。按照上下文语境,直译与意译可以互为补充,翻译时可以选择并用这两种译法。
  英语四级翻译技巧:换序译法
  语序是指句子成分的排列次序。汉语是分析型的语言,语序比较固定;而英语则是分析、综合参半的语言,语序比较灵活。英语和汉语在基本语序上大同小异。相同的是主语、谓语和宾语的位置,不同的是状语和定语的位置。所以,在汉译英时,必须考虑到英语读者的思维习惯,适当地将译文的语序进行转换调整。汉译英时的换序主要包括主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语等的换序。请看下面的例子:
  例1.【试题原句】大多数包裹里装着网上订购的物品。(2015年6月四级真题)
  【思路分析】句子主干为“……包裹里装着……物品”,“大多数”作定语,修饰“包裹”;“网上订购的”为定语,修饰“物品”,翻译时可处理为定语从句,也可处理为过去分词作后置定语。这里的“物品”是泛称,所以用“item”表示。
  【参考译文1】Most packages contain the items that are ordered online.
  【参考译文2】Most packages contain the items ordered online.
  【技巧探秘】本句的翻译涉及到了定语的换序。中文原句的主干为“……包裹里装着……物品”,其中“网上订购的”为定语,修饰“物品”。虽然汉语中定语通常放在名词之前,但在英语中,词组或从句作定语时则要放在名词之后,以符合英文的表达习惯和思维方式。因此,可以将定语“网上订购的”翻译时可处理为定语从句,或处理为过去分词作后置定语。(如参考译文1和2所示)
  例2.【试题原句】有些教育工作者2003年就建议设立全民读书日。(2014年6月四级真题)
  【思路分析】本句主干部分为“……教育工作者……建议设立全民读书日”。“有些”作定语,修饰主语 “教育工作者”;谓语“建议”可套用suggest doing sth.或suggest sth.的句式,也可用suggest+从句将其译出,但要注意从句适宜用should+do的虚拟语气,其中should经常被省略。
  【参考译文】In 2003, some workers suggested that we have a national reading day.(状语换序)
  【技巧探秘】参考译文均将原句中置于句中的时间状语“2003年”移至主语“有些教育者”之前,起到 了强调作用。当然,也可以将其放置在句末,例如“Some of them have suggested that the National Reading Day be set up since 2003.”。
  英语四级高分翻译技巧:转态译法
  转态译法是指主动语态和被动语态的互译。四级语篇翻译中难免会使用到这种翻译方法。一般来说,英语里运用被动语态的频率明显高于汉语。从句法角度看:英语重形合,注重句法结构和表达形式。当主动式不便于表达时,出于造句的需要或修辞的考虑,往往采用被动式。从文体的角度看:某些文体较多使用被动句,以迎合其表达的需要。总的说来,英语常用结构被动式,少用意义被动式。汉语则常用意义被动式,少用结构被动式。
  汉语多采用主动语态,但在英译时有时改用被动语态。语态的变换基于多种原因,概括起来说,主要是:为了强调接受动作的人或事物的重要性;为了加强上下文的连贯性;为了使措辞得当,语气委婉;不需要或不可能说出施动者。
  汉语的被动句子,从结构上来说,大体可分为两类:
  第一类,带有表达被动意义的标记(例如,被,用于,为……所等);例如:
  例1.【试题原句】这些资金用于改善教学设施、购买书籍,使16万多所中小学受益。(2014年6月四级真题)
  【参考译文】The fund was used to improve education facilities and buy books, and over 160 thousand pupils and high school students have gained benefits from this.
  【考点分析】因为该句中的“用于”暗含被动意味,所以宜用被动语态。
  例2.【试题原句】因其数量极少,大熊猫已被列为濒危物种。(2014年12月四级真题)
  【参考译文】It has been listed as an endangered species due to its very limited number.
  【考点分析】“大熊猫已被列为濒危物种”可作为主干句,而将“因其数量极少”作为从句或介词短语,  置于主干句之前或之后均可。主句中,“已被列为”根据考生对动作发生状态理解的不同,可译为一般过去时态或现在完成时态均可。
  第二类,不带这种标记(这类句子在形式上一般都有主语,也有动词,但是主语在实际上是谓语动词的动作承受者,而不是执行者。动作执行者并未出现。这种句子结构上为主动句,而含义上是被动句。这一类被动句在汉语中大量存在,英译时一般也要用被动语态来处理),例如:
  例1.【试题原句】换句话说,核能是可以安全开发和利用的。(2014年6月四级真题)
  【参考译文1】In other words, we can develop and use the nuclear energy safely.
  【参考译文2】In other words, the nuclear energy can be exploited and utilized safely.
  【考点分析】核能自己本身不能开发和利用,要采用人为手段,所以将该句处理为被动语态。参考译文1添加了主语“we”,将原句处理为主动语态,从语法上来看,没有错误,但表达不够贴切;参考译文2将原句处理为被动语态,清晰表达了暗含的被动义,更加符合英语表达习惯。
  例2.【试题原句】2011年3月日本核电站事故后,中国的核能开发停了下来,中止审批新的核电站,并开展全国性的核安全检查。(2014年6月四级真题)
  【参考译文】China’s nuclear energy development put to an end after the accident of Japanese nuclear power   station in March, 2011. The approval of new nuclear power plants was suspended, and the inspection of nuclear security was carried out nationwide.
  【考点分析】因原句中“中止审批新的核电站”和“并开展全国性的核安全检查”两个分句没有明确的主语,所以对于这种不强调施动者的句子,可使用被动语态将其译出。参考译文将这两个分句均作被动语态处理,前后对称,句式整齐。
  英语四级高分翻译技巧:灵活处理难词
  考生在翻译过程中,难免会遇到一些难词、谚语、俗语、四字结构等。在这种情况下,考生很容易由于在自己掌握的英语词汇中找不出与汉语原文相对应的词或者由于不会拼写,而导致丢分。遇到这种情况时,考生可以通过使用同/近义词或采用解释法的方式,灵活处理。具体请看下面的例子:
  例.【试题原句】长期以来,大米在中国人的饮食中占据很重要的地位,以至于有谚语说“巧妇难为无米之炊”。(2015年6月四级真题)
  【思路分析】SVO=大米+占据+地位;“长期以来”可作为插入语,置于句首或译为副词,修饰“占据”,“在中国人的饮食中”可译为“in Chinese people’s diet ”,“占据很重要的地位”可转换为“占据如此重要的地位”,可译为“so important/significant”,然后使用 so that 引导结果状语从句,译出后一个分句。
  【参考译文】Rice has long occupied so significant a position in the diet of Chinese that there is a proverb “Even a clever housewife cannot cook a meal without rice”.
  【技巧探秘】在本句中,很多考生会在常见的谚语“巧妇难为无米之炊”上绞尽脑汁。比较地道的译文为“One cannot make bricks without straw”;因为原句提到“大米”,为了和“巧妇难为无米之炊”相对应,所以翻译时,一定要将“大米rice”翻译出来,不可过于意译,可以按照字面意思进行处理,即“Even a clever housewife cannot cook a meal without rice.”。这就提醒考生在遇到此类翻译时,不要简单地拘泥于字面,而要联系上下文,合理组织自己的译文。
  英语四级高分翻译技巧:语篇翻译
  四级翻译由原来的单个句子翻译改革为短文翻译后,字数和难度都有所增加,但同时也为考生提供了充分的上下文语境。这就要求考生树立语篇意识,正确处理全局和局部的关系,争取从整体上理解和把握汉语原文所表达的意思。首先要仔细通读原文,把握其主题及作者的意图,找出其中的关键性词句,在翻译时选用恰当的时态、语气和语态,使译文有较好的整体效果,如下面的例子所示:
  例.【试题原文】
  “你要茶还是咖啡?”是用餐人常被问到的问题。许多西方人会选咖啡,而中国人则会选茶。相传,中国的一位帝王于五千年前发现了茶,并用来治病。在明清(the Ming and Qing Dynasties)期间,茶馆遍布全国。饮茶在六世纪传到日本,但直到十七、十八世纪才传到欧美。如今,茶是世界上最流行的饮料(beverage)之一。茶是中国的民族饮品,也是中国传统和文化的重要组成部分。
  【参考译文】
  “Tea or Coffee?” is a question that diners are frequently asked. Coffee is usually the Westerns’ first choice, while tea is the preferment of Chinese. Legend has it that tea was found by a Chinese emperor more than five thousand years ago, and was then used to cure diseases. Tea houses could be found everywhere across the country in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Having spread to Japan in the 6th Century AD, tea drinking reached the West only until around 17th and 18th centuries. Nowadays, tea has become one of the most popular beverages in the world. Being a national drink in China, tea is also an important component of Chinese tradition and culture.
  这段选文主要围绕中国的茶文化展开讨论,难免涉及一些具有中国特色的词语,例如:“茶”和“茶馆”,在翻译时需要特别注意它们对应的英文译法。其次,要分析原文的文体类型及风格,以求在翻译时达到较好的整体效果。此外,在把握原文全篇特点的同时,还需要理清短文的脉络、层次以及句与句之间的连接和连贯关系。例如,从句间关系看,首先以提出问题入手,引出话题,表明中西方在饮品方面的不同。接着三四五句讲述了中国茶文化发展史。第六句指出中国茶在世界上的地位,最后一句总结说明茶是中国传统和文化的重要组成部分。语篇层次分明,详略得当,衔接有序,翻译时也要注意句间关系以及逻辑关系。另外,因为三四五句涉及到茶文化的发展史,所以宜用一般过去时,而其他句子因为是对茶的客观描述,应用一般现在时。
  总体来说,汉译英在语篇层次上应注意以下几点:
  第一点:一致性。即文章前后的时态、人称和语言风格是否一致,以及译文的遣词造句是否和原文风格一致。(例如,原文中出现了“相传”、“五千年前”、“明清期间”、“六世纪”、“十七、十八世纪”和“如今”等表示时间的词语,在翻译时也需要在译文中选用对应的时态。)
  第二点:逻辑性。汉语的各个句子之间很少使用连词或者表示逻辑关系的副词,句子间的逻辑关系需要译者在阅读的过程中去体会。而英语句子之间通常有明确的表示逻辑关系的词语(例如,Because, but, however, therefore, so, since,或者前面添加表递进的in addition,further以及besides等词,以有效地提升整篇文章的逻辑性。
  第三点:多变性。汉语篇章中的各个句子如果基本结构机构类似,可以给读者一种“整齐”的美感,但英语在语篇的表达中较为注重句型的变化。因此,在汉译英的过程中,一定要注意译文的长、短句相结合,简单、并列、复合句相结合,尽量使句子的表达赋有多样化。

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